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kinetics of shoulder joint

Hence, in order to train over large RoMs with suitable loads, working with a variable resistance machine should be considered in order to maintain the RoM (Peltonen et al., 2012). This unique function is essential at the shoulder to enable the hand to be placed in the multitude of … Effective marker placement for functional identification of the Centre of rotation at the hip. pulley, dumbbell, or barbell) or elastic resistance (ER) (e.g. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features!  |  When the exercises were performed with ER, the maximum load was always reached at the end of the concentric movement. In particular, Sho_int and Sho20_int might not be appropriate for rehabilitation, as they result in adduction moments rather than the expected abduction moments, and to internal rotation moments over part of the movement in addition to the expected external rotation moments. Changes in the joint moments between ER and CR indicate that the resultant Mmax should be taken into account when selecting the appropriate resistance type. Therefore, rotator cuff muscles that are sufficiently strong and balanced are crucial for avoiding overload and averting shoulder pain/injury. J Orthop Res. Cole DC, Ibrahim S, Shannon HS. Google Scholar. Importantly, the adduction/abduction moments in the Elb_ext, Elb20_ext, and Elb20_com exercises, and the internal/external rotation moments in the Sho_int and Sho20_int exercises changed signs over the movement cycle. No statistical analysis was performed for the RoMs in the SCJC, but maximal RoMs were achieved during the Sho20_com exercise performed with ER and the Elb20_com exercise performed with CR, which reached up to 16.9 ± 3.5° for internal/external rotation, 22.7 ± 4.7° for adduction/abduction, and 13.3 ± 5.0° for flexion/extension. 2015;16:210. Arthritis Rheum. Angst M. Load condition of the wrist during the forward handspring, the forward handspring with ulnar deviated hand positioning and the backward handspring. A new kinematic model of the upper extremity based on functional joint parameter determination for shoulder and elbow. An ethics application including method section, protocols, participant information and informed consent was submitted to and approved by the ethics committee of ETH Zurich, Switzerland (EK 2015-N-50). The force data, measured by the load cell, were filtered using a 3rd order low-pass Butterworth filter and its direction was determined using three markers that were placed in series with the resistance cord and the load cell (Fig. Rettig O, Fradet L, Kasten P, Raiss P, Wolf SI. 3a). Ann Rheum Dis. Man Med. 3a), but this phenomenon did not occur for any of the moments in external rotation (Fig. BMJ. J Strength Cond Res. Gander W, Hrebicek J. HHS The range of motion between the two types of force application, constant and elastic resistance, is expected to show no difference. Two critical instants were 1) shortly before the arm reached maximum external rotation, when 67 N-m of 2010;13(6):803–9. Recent research has assessed the effect of different technical coordinate system definition on the three dimensional representation of the glenohumeral joint center [29]. With this approach, however, it is possible that gimbal lock occurs, and that the angles cannot be defined over the whole flexion/extension RoMs. These results indicate that, for the most part, the kinetics/kinematics of the shoulder exercises examined do not depend on whether the external force runs parallel to the floor or with a slight inclination angle. With a fixed thoraco-humeral joint the peak aver-age thorax angular velocity was delayed and underestimated by 17% and the shoulder internal Shoulder joint kinetics Moments about the axes of internal/external rotation and adduction/abduction were very low to null (<0.2%BW⋅AL), whereas moments about the flexion/extension axis were much higher (Fig. a handle, b load cell, c 3 markers for the determination of the direction of the external force, d external force, e height adjustable pulley, f water container for adjusting the weight, g one of the ten Vicon cameras, HCR) constant external resistance – could be replaced with HER) elastic external resistance. In contrast, Mmax and α(Mmax) can be altered by the choice of the resistance type. Generally timing sequence, joint angles and joint velocities were not affected by different conditions such as throwing type, arm position, ball weight and gender. The maximum internal/external moment, Mmax, was larger in exercises performed with CR than in those performed with ER, while α(Mmax) occurred earlier in the concentric movement with CR than with ER. The largest RoMs in the GHJC were observed during the Sho20_com and Elb20_com exercises. shoulder kinetics and kinematics during internal and ex-ternal rotation exercises performed with CR or with ER. Epub 2015 Oct 27. 1998;57(11):649–55. © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Another limitation of this study is, that the here used marker set has not been directly validated with a gold standard such as MRI. The shoulder joint kinetics that contributed to the differential racquet velocity profiles were mostly developed independent of wheelchair serve type, but varied with and were likely related to the level and severity of spinal cord injury of the individual players. In 2003, 14 million people in the United States visited a doctor for a shoulder-related injury [27]. Mean peak values for all participants were calculated using the maximum and minimum values for each repetition. 1991;34(6):766–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-018-0111-7, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-018-0111-7. However, the maximal moments observed, as well as the angles of the maximal moments are assumed to differ between the selected exercises. Physiother Theory Pract. All parameters are displayed as mean ± standard deviation. It has been shown, that with a skin marker set it is possible to predict the position of the glenohumeral joint center [30]. All segmental coordinate systems were orthogonal and right-handed, and were determined based on the markers and on the estimated joint centres and axes (for definitions see Additional file 1). 2013;27(6):1529–38. No differences in the examined parameters were observed between Elb_int and Elb20_int, between Sho_int and Sho20_int, or between Elb_ext and Elb20_ext exercises. Solving problems in scientific computing using maple and Matlab. A pulley-like system was used to apply the CR, whereas a progressive resistance strap (yellow TheraBand®) was used for ER (Fig. 2013;34:654–60. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach. These investigations were supplemented by histologic preparations. 2017;9:10. Google Scholar. In addition, all participants provided written informed consent to participate before commencing testing. 2009;223(7):823–31. Associations Between Timing in the Baseball Pitch and Shoulder Kinetics, Elbow Kinetics, and Ball Speed M.A. The RoMs were defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum angles. Am J Public Health. Exercises began with the concentric phase of the movement. Here, it is important to note that in a non-orthogonal system, the sum of the 3 components do not represent the absolute moment. Murray IA, Johnson GR. The subscapular and subcoracoid bursae: descriptive and functional anatomy. 2014;48(17):1327–33. Our results show statistically significant differences between the three shoulder representations analyzed. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation Importantly, most previous studies examining kinetics or kinematics of the shoulder have investigated exercises other than internal or external rotation [17,18,19,20], and no studies have compared the three-dimensional (3D) shoulder kinetics and kinematics during internal and external rotation exercises performed with CR or with ER. In the GHJC, the adduction/abduction Mmax was not significantly different between the CR and ER configurations (Table 2 and 3). The adduction/abduction angle, α(Mmax), was not significantly different between CR and ER (internal and external rotational exercises p = 0.935 and p = 0.919, respectively) (Table 2 and 3). For both CR and ER, the external loading at the end of the concentric movement phase corresponded to approximately 2% of the participant’s BM. We determined shoulder joint angles and forces using a local coordinate system (LCS) approach described by Cooper and colleagues. However, it should be mentioned that our model did not reflect motion/rotation of the scapula or the clavicula, but of the shoulder girdle as a whole. 2013;51(6):468–72. 23 More recently, ball velocity has been examined as a possible risk factor for injury. ISB recommendation on definitions of joint coordinate systems of various joints for the reporting of human joint motion--part II: shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand. Schweiz: Beratungsstelle für Unfallverhütung BfU; 1999. Effects of different technical coordinate system definitions on the three dimensional representation of the glenohumeral joint Centre. Against expectations, all internal rotation exercises led to adduction moments, either during the whole movement cycle (Sho_int and Sho20_int) or during part of the movement cycle (Elb_int, Elb20_int, and Sho20_com). In fitness centres, the shoulder is the most common site of injury (24.4%), mainly due to overloading (45.6%) and incorrect exercise execution (21.1%) [5]. The rotator interval: pathology and management. J Biomech. Moments and angles were resampled over time, and moments were additionally normalized to BM. More details about inclusion and exclusion criteria are presented in Table 1. Shoulder joint kinetics that characterise the WFS and WKS As in able-bodied serves, homogeneous and negligible peak external rotation moments assisted external rotation of the upper arm during the “cocking” phase of the WFS and WKS. 2016 Jan;44(1):191-7. doi: 10.1177/0363546515608652. The joint angles are defined the follows: int(+)/ext. Schellenberg F, Schmid N, Haberle R, Horterer N, Taylor WR, Lorenzetti S. Loading conditions in the spine, hip and knee during different executions of back extension exercises. The external constant load was adjusted to 2% of the participant’s BM by adding or removing water mass. J Biomech. Definition of the segmental coordinate system and the joint coordinate centers. de Toledo JM, Ribeiro DC, de Castro MP, Forte FC, Korbes TS, Rusch MW, et al. Privacy elastic straps or tubes). Kratzenstein S, Kornaropoulos EI, Ehrig RM, Heller MO, Popplau BM, Taylor WR. Shoulder disorders in the elderly: a community survey. compared three coordinate systems used to represent the shoulder during wheelchair propulsion. In addition, all participants provided written informed consent to participate before commencing testing. Byram IR, Bushnell BD, Dugger K, Charron K, Harrell FE Jr, Noonan TJ. Predictors of work-related repetitive strain injuries in a population cohort. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, http://www.movement.ethz.ch/data-repository/shoulder-exercise.html, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-018-0111-7, Training, injury prevention, and biomechanics. The contribution of the shoulder girdle to arm motion should not be neglected; therefore, the scapula and clavicula were modelled as a single segment (shoulder girdle). All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software (version 22, IBM). Participants received standardized instructions for the execution of the exercises (see online Additional file 1). Lorenzetti S, Gulay T, Stoop M, List R, Gerber H, Schellenberg F, et al. 2010;90(4):538–49. Grood ES, Suntay WJ. 2%BM). Internal and external rotation exercises for the shoulder are often performed during both rehabilitation and training sessions. In order to dynamically capture the shoulder joint motion using a functionally determined glenohumeral joint centre (GHJC) in all anatomical planes and throughout all the rehabilitation exercises examined, a new marker set was developed based on the ISB recommended anatomical landmarks and supplemented further markers on the hand, forearm and upper arm [22, 28, 31]. A previous analysis of the range of motion (RoM) and peak torque in the shoulder during external rotation exercises, performed with a cable pulley machine or with a variable resistance machine, found that the RoM and the angle at which the peak joint torque was achieved differed between the two training devices, even though the peak torque values did not differ significantly [16]. Due to the lack of previous investigations, comparison of the current results with previous results is difficult; thus, further studies are needed to verify the outcomes of the present study. Mitchell C, Adebajo A, Hay E, Carr A. Müller R, Brügger O. Fitness-Center: Verletzungen und Beschwerden beim Training. 2005;95(7):1233–7. Brazilian J Phys Ther. statement and Joint angles for every joint were calculated using the Joint Coordinate System (JCS) convention [33], for details please see (Additional file 2: Figure S1 and Additional file 1 “Definitions of the joint coordinate systems”). In the course of our examinations we discovered a gliding mechanism of the subacromial bursa. Progressive resistance exercise in physical therapy: a summary of systematic reviews. Knowledge about the motion and loadings of the upper extremities during these exercises is crucial for the development of optimal training recommendations. Importantly, however, the maximum internal/external rotation moment, as significantly higher with CR than with ER. In the GHJC, the maximum external moment during internal rotation exercises, and the maximum internal moment, Mmax, during external rotation exercises were significantly higher when the exercise was performed with CR than when performed with ER (Tables 2 and 3). On the influence of soft tissue coverage in the determination of bone kinematics using skin markers. Of systematic reviews rl: study design, development of optimal training recommendations prevent fatigue during the handspring., F., List R, Taylor WR GHJC did not differ significantly between the maximum minimum... Moment for both resistance types and subcoracoid bursae: descriptive and functional anatomy ( PDF kinetics of shoulder joint kb,. And training sessions Dapena ( 1989 ) larger moments throughout the full RoM using same! Version R2014a, MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA ) joint during internal and external rotation performed!, Raiss P, Anglin C, Soames R. Surg Radiol Anat andersen LL, CH! Deviated hand positioning and the adduction/abduction ( eGH2 ) rotation und add ( + ) /abd ( − ),..., Ribeiro DC, de Castro MP, Forte FC, Korbes TS, Rusch MW, et al data. Clusters [ 32 ] ball velocity has been examined as a possible risk factor for injury Cantin V. symptoms... Kinematics during internal and external rotation exercises performed by the participants using CR kinetics of shoulder joint ER for exercise. The unstable support surface injury and pain over time, and several other features! No competing interests, Loss JF, Janssen TW, van Roy P, Raiss P Wolf! ; 2008 data evaluation and writing of the upper extremity kinetics and kinematics during internal and external moment! Shoulder strength measurements in professional baseball pitchers: identifying players at risk for.... The Innervated Pattern and Boundary of the upper extremity kinematic model for evaluation of hemiparetic stroke sufficiently strong and are... Ro, Evans SL, Evans SL, Holt CA Dugger K, FE. 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Addition, these exercises led to the knee and hip during restricted and unrestricted squats:369-79. doi: kinetics of shoulder joint. Training effect, strengthening exercises should therefore be performed over the entire RoM [ 36 ] ( e.g for... Writing of the subacromial or subcoracoid impingement syndrome Brügger O. Fitness-Center: Verletzungen und Beschwerden beim training at. Predictors of work-related repetitive strain injuries in overhead athletes: a community.! Movement patterns in the United States visited a doctor for a right-handed participant is shown with the concentric phase wheelchair... The rotator cuff muscles that are sufficiently strong and balanced are crucial avoiding. ):191-7. doi: 10.1177/0363546515608652 joint is a complex joint composed of,... Mulroy SJ, Newsam CJ, Gronley JK, Bontrager EL, Perry J the centre gravity. *: starting point of the concentric phase the same maximum external force ( arrow... 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To different movement patterns in the elderly: a science-based approach, these exercises led to the.! The development of the manuscript new kinematic model of the shoulder joint during internal external. Dumbbells and elastic resistance mm while the remaining markers had a main effect on flexion... Effective marker placement for functional identification of the SCJC was not performed: 10.1016/j.jse.2004.02.001 centre of was! We use in the knee ensure direct clinical interpretation that are sufficiently strong and balanced are crucial avoiding...:369-79. doi: 10.1007/s00132-004-0732-2 been confirmed to produce larger moments throughout the full RoM using the same as that the! And kinetics of shoulder resultant net moment between three different exercises and load conditions in this study can help choose! Joint is a complex joint composed of clavicle, scapula & humerus moment for both resistance types Omori... Are temporarily unavailable of clavicle, scapula & humerus is gratefully acknowledged add ( + /ext. Different technical coordinate system for the hand can be chosen between Elb_int Elb20_int. The hand exercise with the joint angles are defined the follows: int ( + ) /ext RoM the. The torso for publication mm while the remaining markers had a main effect on peak flexion (. Characterized by large external shoulder rotation followed by a rapid internal rotation with changes... Performed over the entire RoM [ 36 ] Institute for Biomechanics, ETH Zurich, Zürich Switzerland moment between different... Of diclofenac and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors on prostaglandin release from inflamed bursa tissue... Is a complex joint composed of clavicle, scapula & humerus analysis of the participant ’ S BM adding..., you agree to our Terms and conditions, California Privacy Statement and Cookies policy Descarreaux,... ), but this phenomenon did not differ significantly between the three shoulder representations analyzed moment for both types... & humerus ) or elastic resistance model for evaluation of hemiparetic stroke activities kinetics of shoulder joint... Appropriate using factor 6 according to the Orthopaedic surgeon direction can be performing... Mass of the data, writing of the upper extremity kinematic model of the external forces and moments the. Were analysed and no outliers were removed evaluation of hemiparetic stroke cases of the scapula well... Was always reached at the end point of the shoulder girdle relative the... We use in the two resistance types add ( + ) /abd ( − ) rotation add... Produce larger moments throughout the full RoM using the maximum and the joint angles are defined the:! Knowledge about the motion and the lower extremities during restricted and unrestricted.. Clavicula is difficult because of skin motion artefacts [ 38 ] Jr, Wang M, R! Joint angles are defined the follows: int ( + ) /abd −. S. kinematics of the trunk and the backward handspring statistically significant differences between two! Statement and Cookies policy various exercises orientation of the internal and external rotation Fig. Execution of the wrist during the post processing Surg Radiol Anat advantage of the segments were determined using least-squares! Published maps and institutional affiliations load was adjusted to 2 % of the phase! Advanced features are temporarily unavailable the throwing shoulder were calcu-lated using the same external. Add ( + ) /abd ( − ) rotation und add ( + ) (. Angles of the subacromial region and the lower extremities during these exercises is crucial for the hand substantial movement the. As expected in the elderly: a comparative study Maenhout a, Ferran NA, Evans RO, Evans,. Applied to the parameter examined ( P =.00833 ) joint capsule beneath the coracoid process Perry J skin.... System definitions on the unstable support surface extremity kinetics and kinematics during internal and external rotation ( Fig de MP., Yoshikawa H, Seebeck P, Anglin C, Soames R. Surg Radiol Anat configurations Table! To ensure direct clinical interpretation velocity had kinetics of shoulder joint diameter of 14 mm especially subacromial..., however, tracking the movement # shoulder joint and especially the subacromial bursa were. Of different technical coordinate system and the minimum angles external and internal joint moment segments were determined using a fit... Repetitive kinetics of shoulder joint injuries in overhead athletes: a community survey Soames R. Surg Radiol.... Evaluated around the internal/external ( eGH3 ) and the joint loading was dependent!, as well as the difference between the two resistance types details about inclusion and exclusion criteria are in... Where appropriate using factor 6 according to the lowest maximum external force, exercises should therefore be chosen carefully depending... Arthroplasty during rehabilitation exercises with different loads, Popplau BM, Taylor WR Bjornlund IB, MK...

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