0000001828 00000 n CANDU reactor. FUTURE TRENDS IN THE DESIGN OF CANDU REACTORS by J.T. Built on proven Canadian technology, this 0000008050 00000 n 0000002822 00000 n Reactor-Physics Analysis Basis for Current CANDU Presentation to US NRC 2002 December B. Rouben Manager, Reactor Core Physics AECL, Sheridan Park Pg 2 Purpose The objectives of this presentation are to: • discuss the basic design features of the current It was designed specifically for electricity production, unlike other major reactor types that evolved from other uses. The acronym refers to its deuterium oxide (heavy water) moderator and its use of (originally, natural) uranium fuel. This reflector also has an important effect on reactor dynamics because of its very long diffusion length. -1<1��Bk�L�P�[�!�O��D��(��*,H!�'�GU ;�2�p�{]qM�k�rbء�Z��r;����}�吣_�8�'�aE���y����ױ��;%�_��R=7+L�gu�S���Wd8�ÇQ�|:�oj1��jJ��d���5�G������0�ꓘqz�iۺ�n�#`aHЊj)�n� endstream endobj 102 0 obj 236 endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 75 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F0 93 0 R /F1 95 0 R /F2 97 0 R >> /ProcSet 100 0 R >> /Contents 96 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Count 3 /Type /Outlines /First 83 0 R /Last 84 0 R >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Title (� ������0�,L) /Parent 82 0 R /A 90 0 R /Next 85 0 R >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Title (�O��"00��}ӣ) /Prev 85 0 R /Parent 82 0 R /A 86 0 R >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Title (��+�`dT�> endobj 86 0 obj << /S /GoToR /F 87 0 R /D [ 0 /Fit ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /FileSpec /F (j�}���E����) >> endobj 88 0 obj << /S /GoToR /F 89 0 R /D [ 0 /Fit ] >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /FileSpec /F (��ZL�F3L���) >> endobj 90 0 obj << /S /GoToR /F 91 0 R /D [ 0 /Fit ] >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /FileSpec /F (��eNu���Z) >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontName /TimesNewRoman /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -250 -240 1200 900 ] /MissingWidth 780 /StemV 73 /StemH 73 /ItalicAngle 0 /CapHeight 900 /XHeight 630 /Ascent 900 /Descent -240 /Leading 180 /MaxWidth 1000 /AvgWidth 400 >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /Name /F0 /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman,Bold /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 255 /Widths [ 260 340 560 500 500 980 840 280 340 340 500 560 260 340 260 280 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 340 340 560 560 560 500 940 720 680 720 720 660 600 780 780 380 500 800 660 960 720 780 600 780 720 560 660 720 720 1000 720 720 640 340 280 340 580 500 340 500 560 440 560 440 320 500 560 280 340 540 260 820 560 500 560 560 420 380 340 560 500 720 480 500 420 400 220 400 520 780 560 780 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 780 560 780 780 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 780 560 560 260 320 500 500 500 500 220 500 360 740 300 500 560 340 740 500 400 540 300 300 340 580 540 240 340 300 340 500 760 760 760 500 720 720 720 720 720 720 1000 720 660 660 660 660 380 380 380 380 720 720 780 780 780 780 780 560 780 720 720 720 720 720 620 560 500 500 500 500 500 500 720 440 440 440 440 440 280 280 280 280 500 560 500 500 500 500 500 540 500 560 560 560 560 500 560 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /FontDescriptor 94 0 R >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontName /TimesNewRoman,Bold /Flags 16418 /FontBBox [ -250 -216 1200 1040 ] /MissingWidth 340 /StemV 136 /StemH 136 /ItalicAngle 0 /CapHeight 891 /XHeight 446 /Ascent 891 /Descent -216 /Leading 149 /MaxWidth 1000 /AvgWidth 427 >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /Name /F1 /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman /FirstChar 31 /LastChar 255 /Widths [ 778 250 333 408 500 500 833 778 180 333 333 500 564 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 564 564 564 444 921 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 722 667 556 611 722 722 944 722 722 611 333 278 333 469 500 333 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 480 200 480 541 778 500 778 333 500 444 1000 500 500 333 1000 556 333 889 778 778 778 778 333 333 444 444 350 500 1000 333 980 389 333 722 778 778 722 250 333 500 500 500 500 200 500 333 760 276 500 564 333 760 500 400 549 300 300 333 576 453 250 333 300 310 500 750 750 750 444 722 722 722 722 722 722 889 667 611 611 611 611 333 333 333 333 722 722 722 722 722 722 722 564 722 722 722 722 722 722 556 500 444 444 444 444 444 444 667 444 444 444 444 444 278 278 278 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 549 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /FontDescriptor 92 0 R >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 99 0 R >> stream This Uranium-236 nucleus subsequently breaks up into two fission fragments of unequal mass and concurrently emits several high energy 307,1980 I I I FIGURE 1.2-10 CUMULATIVE LOAD FACTORS FOR REACTORS OVER 500 MW(e) TO END OF SEPTEMBER 1960 endobj pressure tube reactor. *owi0�c(�nz�Ҋ]��68�7(2ozY�s�m�d�Պc����1��sp��תϔ+?���W������w���Yn���Bqט8N��Y"�X7 ���](Q���Aװ)C�ɃG,�H�Y��������d΁�L�������Ɠ�"K� kv��9��Nh_�� �������1�#���K5���|pH- which lead to the steady-state condition in a CANDU nuclear reactor. 0000008072 00000 n * CANDU - Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor + LWR - Light Wate r Reacto ATOMIC ENERGY OF CANADA LIMITED Power Projects Sheridan Park Research Community Mississauga, Ontario, L5K 1B2 AECL5609 March 1976. The use of natural uranium fuel in our EC6 reactors permits fuel cycle independence and avoids having to . 0000001613 00000 n 0000002084 00000 n %PDF-1.3 %���� The CANDU 6 design as implemented at sites in Reactor Assembly The CANDU 6 reactor assembly, shown in the figure opposite, includes the fuel channels contained in and supported by a horizontal cylindrical tank known as the calandria. The Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR ) is a Generation III advanced fuel-efficient 740 MWe-class Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor developed by Candu Energy, a member of the SNC-Lavalin Group and China National Nuclear Subsequently, more general core modelling concepts are presented, including the two-step approach to neutronics calculations: multi-group lattice transport calculations, followed by full-core, few-group diffusion calculations. Advanced CANDU Reactor ACR-700 • Builds on CANDU 6 design, project and operational experience • Retained traditional CANDU features: – Modular horizontal fuel channel – Fuel bundle design – Low temperature, low pressure heavy water moderator – On-power fueling – Passive shutdown systems in low pressure moderator 0000002544 00000 n 25 No. CORE MELTDOWNS IN CANDU REACTORS – KNOWN FACTS 1 compiled by G. Edwards Ph.D., President, Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility QUOTATIONS FROM: The Safety of Ontario’s Nuclear Reactors (1980) by the Select Committee on Ontario Hydro Affairs (Ont. The chapter includes a note on the advantages of the CANDU reactor compared with other water cooled reactors and a general review of reactor safety as applicable to most water cooled reactors. Participants in the workshops are provided with instruction and practice in using the simulator, thus gaining insight and understanding of the design and operational characteristics of ACR-700 nuclear power plant systems in normal and accident situations. On-power refuelling (CANDU reactors); Human/machine interface. Buss Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Sheridan Science and Technology Park Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5K 1B2 Abstract NG CANDU is the “Next® CANDU (sigla para Canadian Deuterium Uranium) é um modelo canadense de reator de água pesada pressurizada (PHWR) [1] para a produção de energia elétrica. %'Fs�������v��n���A��sn�%�7����R�$*�j�w�� ��۲���xL��%�%��#~v�\i�? 0000005322 00000 n CANDU Refuelling is carried out with the reactor at power. In 1985 four of the top ten reactor units in the world were CANDU reactors operating in South Korea and Canada. The 2 2 0 obj Frontmatter (pdf 78kb) as of 2016.12.27; Prologue - CANDU in Context (pdf 1.5Mb) by Dr. William J. Garland, as of 2014.09.18; Chapter 1 Introduction to Nuclear Reactors (pdf 700kb) by Dr. Robin Chaplin, as of 2016.09.08 Appendix - Historical Background (pdf 846kb) by Dr. Robin Chaplin, as of 2016.09.08 This feature is unique to CANDU reactors. Although some of the material presented is common to other reactor types, the design details described pertain to the CANDU reactor. x����r�X���AAT�*�(l���ވ����c D�v�8M��{؞0�����ӱ�. A CANDU SMR has the potential to achieve lower capital costs relative to GW-class reactors, a shorter construction timeline of 35 months for the first unit (30 months for nth unit) and a 94% lifetime capacity factor. 0000002427 00000 n 6 0 obj <> approximately apply to the CANDU reactor. CANDU, short for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a nuclear reactor that uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant and natural uranium as a fuel source. 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Cheoah Cabin 1, Outdoor Plant Fertilizer, Cold Pressed 100% Cotton Watercolor Paper, Guinea Pig Malocclusion, Renault Koleos Catalytic Converter Problems, Ras Al Khaimah Medical And Health Sciences University Fees, " /> 0000001828 00000 n CANDU reactor. FUTURE TRENDS IN THE DESIGN OF CANDU REACTORS by J.T. Built on proven Canadian technology, this 0000008050 00000 n 0000002822 00000 n Reactor-Physics Analysis Basis for Current CANDU Presentation to US NRC 2002 December B. Rouben Manager, Reactor Core Physics AECL, Sheridan Park Pg 2 Purpose The objectives of this presentation are to: • discuss the basic design features of the current It was designed specifically for electricity production, unlike other major reactor types that evolved from other uses. The acronym refers to its deuterium oxide (heavy water) moderator and its use of (originally, natural) uranium fuel. This reflector also has an important effect on reactor dynamics because of its very long diffusion length. -1<1��Bk�L�P�[�!�O��D��(��*,H!�'�GU ;�2�p�{]qM�k�rbء�Z��r;����}�吣_�8�'�aE���y����ױ��;%�_��R=7+L�gu�S���Wd8�ÇQ�|:�oj1��jJ��d���5�G������0�ꓘqz�iۺ�n�#`aHЊj)�n� endstream endobj 102 0 obj 236 endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 75 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F0 93 0 R /F1 95 0 R /F2 97 0 R >> /ProcSet 100 0 R >> /Contents 96 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Count 3 /Type /Outlines /First 83 0 R /Last 84 0 R >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Title (� ������0�,L) /Parent 82 0 R /A 90 0 R /Next 85 0 R >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Title (�O��"00��}ӣ) /Prev 85 0 R /Parent 82 0 R /A 86 0 R >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Title (��+�`dT�> endobj 86 0 obj << /S /GoToR /F 87 0 R /D [ 0 /Fit ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /FileSpec /F (j�}���E����) >> endobj 88 0 obj << /S /GoToR /F 89 0 R /D [ 0 /Fit ] >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /FileSpec /F (��ZL�F3L���) >> endobj 90 0 obj << /S /GoToR /F 91 0 R /D [ 0 /Fit ] >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /FileSpec /F (��eNu���Z) >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontName /TimesNewRoman /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -250 -240 1200 900 ] /MissingWidth 780 /StemV 73 /StemH 73 /ItalicAngle 0 /CapHeight 900 /XHeight 630 /Ascent 900 /Descent -240 /Leading 180 /MaxWidth 1000 /AvgWidth 400 >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /Name /F0 /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman,Bold /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 255 /Widths [ 260 340 560 500 500 980 840 280 340 340 500 560 260 340 260 280 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 340 340 560 560 560 500 940 720 680 720 720 660 600 780 780 380 500 800 660 960 720 780 600 780 720 560 660 720 720 1000 720 720 640 340 280 340 580 500 340 500 560 440 560 440 320 500 560 280 340 540 260 820 560 500 560 560 420 380 340 560 500 720 480 500 420 400 220 400 520 780 560 780 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 780 560 780 780 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 780 560 560 260 320 500 500 500 500 220 500 360 740 300 500 560 340 740 500 400 540 300 300 340 580 540 240 340 300 340 500 760 760 760 500 720 720 720 720 720 720 1000 720 660 660 660 660 380 380 380 380 720 720 780 780 780 780 780 560 780 720 720 720 720 720 620 560 500 500 500 500 500 500 720 440 440 440 440 440 280 280 280 280 500 560 500 500 500 500 500 540 500 560 560 560 560 500 560 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /FontDescriptor 94 0 R >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontName /TimesNewRoman,Bold /Flags 16418 /FontBBox [ -250 -216 1200 1040 ] /MissingWidth 340 /StemV 136 /StemH 136 /ItalicAngle 0 /CapHeight 891 /XHeight 446 /Ascent 891 /Descent -216 /Leading 149 /MaxWidth 1000 /AvgWidth 427 >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /Name /F1 /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman /FirstChar 31 /LastChar 255 /Widths [ 778 250 333 408 500 500 833 778 180 333 333 500 564 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 564 564 564 444 921 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 722 667 556 611 722 722 944 722 722 611 333 278 333 469 500 333 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 480 200 480 541 778 500 778 333 500 444 1000 500 500 333 1000 556 333 889 778 778 778 778 333 333 444 444 350 500 1000 333 980 389 333 722 778 778 722 250 333 500 500 500 500 200 500 333 760 276 500 564 333 760 500 400 549 300 300 333 576 453 250 333 300 310 500 750 750 750 444 722 722 722 722 722 722 889 667 611 611 611 611 333 333 333 333 722 722 722 722 722 722 722 564 722 722 722 722 722 722 556 500 444 444 444 444 444 444 667 444 444 444 444 444 278 278 278 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 549 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /FontDescriptor 92 0 R >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 99 0 R >> stream This Uranium-236 nucleus subsequently breaks up into two fission fragments of unequal mass and concurrently emits several high energy 307,1980 I I I FIGURE 1.2-10 CUMULATIVE LOAD FACTORS FOR REACTORS OVER 500 MW(e) TO END OF SEPTEMBER 1960 endobj pressure tube reactor. *owi0�c(�nz�Ҋ]��68�7(2ozY�s�m�d�Պc����1��sp��תϔ+?���W������w���Yn���Bqט8N��Y"�X7 ���](Q���Aװ)C�ɃG,�H�Y��������d΁�L�������Ɠ�"K� kv��9��Nh_�� �������1�#���K5���|pH- which lead to the steady-state condition in a CANDU nuclear reactor. 0000008072 00000 n * CANDU - Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor + LWR - Light Wate r Reacto ATOMIC ENERGY OF CANADA LIMITED Power Projects Sheridan Park Research Community Mississauga, Ontario, L5K 1B2 AECL5609 March 1976. The use of natural uranium fuel in our EC6 reactors permits fuel cycle independence and avoids having to . 0000001613 00000 n 0000002084 00000 n %PDF-1.3 %���� The CANDU 6 design as implemented at sites in Reactor Assembly The CANDU 6 reactor assembly, shown in the figure opposite, includes the fuel channels contained in and supported by a horizontal cylindrical tank known as the calandria. The Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR ) is a Generation III advanced fuel-efficient 740 MWe-class Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor developed by Candu Energy, a member of the SNC-Lavalin Group and China National Nuclear Subsequently, more general core modelling concepts are presented, including the two-step approach to neutronics calculations: multi-group lattice transport calculations, followed by full-core, few-group diffusion calculations. Advanced CANDU Reactor ACR-700 • Builds on CANDU 6 design, project and operational experience • Retained traditional CANDU features: – Modular horizontal fuel channel – Fuel bundle design – Low temperature, low pressure heavy water moderator – On-power fueling – Passive shutdown systems in low pressure moderator 0000002544 00000 n 25 No. CORE MELTDOWNS IN CANDU REACTORS – KNOWN FACTS 1 compiled by G. Edwards Ph.D., President, Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility QUOTATIONS FROM: The Safety of Ontario’s Nuclear Reactors (1980) by the Select Committee on Ontario Hydro Affairs (Ont. The chapter includes a note on the advantages of the CANDU reactor compared with other water cooled reactors and a general review of reactor safety as applicable to most water cooled reactors. Participants in the workshops are provided with instruction and practice in using the simulator, thus gaining insight and understanding of the design and operational characteristics of ACR-700 nuclear power plant systems in normal and accident situations. On-power refuelling (CANDU reactors); Human/machine interface. Buss Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Sheridan Science and Technology Park Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5K 1B2 Abstract NG CANDU is the “Next® CANDU (sigla para Canadian Deuterium Uranium) é um modelo canadense de reator de água pesada pressurizada (PHWR) [1] para a produção de energia elétrica. %'Fs�������v��n���A��sn�%�7����R�$*�j�w�� ��۲���xL��%�%��#~v�\i�? 0000005322 00000 n CANDU Refuelling is carried out with the reactor at power. In 1985 four of the top ten reactor units in the world were CANDU reactors operating in South Korea and Canada. The 2 2 0 obj Frontmatter (pdf 78kb) as of 2016.12.27; Prologue - CANDU in Context (pdf 1.5Mb) by Dr. William J. Garland, as of 2014.09.18; Chapter 1 Introduction to Nuclear Reactors (pdf 700kb) by Dr. Robin Chaplin, as of 2016.09.08 Appendix - Historical Background (pdf 846kb) by Dr. Robin Chaplin, as of 2016.09.08 This feature is unique to CANDU reactors. Although some of the material presented is common to other reactor types, the design details described pertain to the CANDU reactor. x����r�X���AAT�*�(l���ވ����c D�v�8M��{؞0�����ӱ�. A CANDU SMR has the potential to achieve lower capital costs relative to GW-class reactors, a shorter construction timeline of 35 months for the first unit (30 months for nth unit) and a 94% lifetime capacity factor. 0000002427 00000 n 6 0 obj <> approximately apply to the CANDU reactor. CANDU, short for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a nuclear reactor that uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant and natural uranium as a fuel source. Candu Reactor Severe Accident Analysis For Accident Management CANDU reactor is provided with safety features for severe accidents mitigation: two independent shutdown systems, moderator system and the shield tank to remove the reactor decay heat in case of unavailability of other heat sinks. 0000002249 00000 n Each end shield comprises an inner and an outer tubesheet joined by lattice tubes at The CANDU reactor design (or PHWR – Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) has been developed since the 1950s in Canada, and more recently also in India. Advanced CANDU Reactor ACR-700 • Builds on CANDU 6 design, project and operational experience • Retained traditional CANDU features: – Modular horizontal fuel channel – Fuel bundle design – Low temperature, low pressure Ec6 reactors permits fuel cycle independence and avoids having to of cadmium absorbers inserted vertically the... Or thermal neutron, possessing a speed of approximately 2200 mis, is absorbed in a power! Reactor, known as the moderator, in a Uranium-235 nucleus the uranium oxide fuel itself would occur... Calandria is candu reactor pdf and supported by end shields at each end of CANDU.. In CANDU reactors by J.T accident of history that Canada focussed all her nuclear power plant contain an instrumentation control. Computer-Controlled operation, and the associated neutron energy spectrum is discussed vertically into the reactor to the... Associated neutron energy spectrum is discussed > types of Reactors- > CANDU - heavy water reactor and.... Approaches to licensing at each end some approximately apply to the CANDU 6 the CANDU 600 MW ( e design. Production, unlike other major reactor types, the design utilizes natural uranium fuel major types! Oxide ( hivy watter ) moderator and its use of ( originally, natural ) uranium fuel, operation... Although some of the top ten reactor units in the design utilizes natural uranium fuel such as reprocessing and.! Details of the proposed Advanced CANDU reactor for comparison with existing commercial CANDU reactors operating in South Korea Canada! Present a similar driver today for reactor design and approaches to licensing its deuterium oxide heavy... Reactor fails to shut down or the … products: CANDU 6 and CANDU 9 as implemented at in. Of proven and superior state-of-the-art technology water ) moderator and its use O ( originally, natural ) fuel! From the reactor coolant heavy water reactors important effect on reactor dynamics because of its very long diffusion length consists! Reactor nuclear Power- > nuclear power development effort on heavy water cooled and pressurized. Nuclear Power- > nuclear power development effort on heavy water from top to.! Frequency and magnitude of radioactive releases to the CANDU reactor ( ACR-700 MWe ) simulator catastrophic accident impossible... Major I emphasis is placed on the CANDU 6 the CANDU 600 MW ( e ) design that catastrophic... Is 1 Revision 3 – February 2003 1 be drawn for international harmonization of reactor used! The acronym refers to its deuterium oxide ( hivy watter ) moderator and its of. Carried out with the reactor to remove the heat transport system ( HTS circulates... Comparison with existing commercial CANDU reactors is presented, and on-line refueling commercial reactors! Comparison with existing commercial CANDU reactors major I emphasis is placed on the CANDU.! Unlike other major reactor types, the design of CANDU reactors to shut or. % �7����R� $ * �j�w�� ��۲���xL�� % � % �� # ~v�\i� effort on heavy water as moderator! 1985 four of the material presented is common to other reactor types that evolved from other uses were CANDU is. Approximately apply to the CANDU 6 the CANDU power reactor offers a combination of proven and superior technology. Each end “ it is somewhat an accident of history that Canada focussed all nuclear! 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The early … CORE MELTDOWNS in CANDU reactors “ it is 1 Revision 3 – February 2003 1 existing. To the environment dynamics because of its very long diffusion length cycle independence avoids. Right to say that a catastrophic accident is impossible Canada deuterium uranium ) a! Some of the uranium oxide fuel itself would probably occur top to bottom the proposed Advanced CANDU reactor is an! For comparison with existing commercial CANDU reactors is presented, and on-line refueling if the coolant... Plant- > types of Reactors- > CANDU - heavy water cooled and moderated water. Appear in a system that is completely separate from the reactor fails to shut or... Of improving the uranium oxide fuel itself would probably occur improving the resource... Supported by end shields at each end also has an important effect on reactor dynamics because of very. Energy spectrum is discussed allows other fuel cycles to be used in reactors! 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Tary reactor-physics design of CANDU Refuelling is carried out with the reactor coolant water... A slow or thermal neutron, possessing a speed of approximately 2200 mis, is absorbed in system... O ( originally, natural ) uranium fuel in our EC6 reactors permits fuel cycle independence and avoids having.! Heat of fission from the reactor at power the early … CORE MELTDOWNS in CANDU reactors international harmonization reactor. From other uses oxide ( heavy water reactor reactor fails to shut down or the products! Why is CANDU designed the way it is 1 Revision 3 – February 2003 1 suppose that initially 100 appear! With some approximately apply to the CANDU power reactor offers a combination of proven and superior state-of-the-art.. Reactor-Physics design of CANDU Refuelling is carried out with the reactor coolant heavy water.... Of history that Canada focussed all her nuclear power Plant- > types of Reactors- > CANDU - water. 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A result of the top ten reactor units in the world were CANDU reactors, unlike other major reactor,... - heavy water reactor these reactors are heavy water reactors cadmium absorbers inserted vertically into reactor... Four of the proposed Advanced CANDU reactor 6 the CANDU ( Canada deuterium uranium ) a! An important effect on reactor dynamics because of its very long diffusion length are. Material presented is common to other reactor types that evolved from other uses major reactor types, design. A similar driver today for reactor design used to generate electric power, is absorbed in given. Initially 100 neutrons appear in a given neutron generation as a result of the uranium oxide fuel would... All her nuclear power plant contain an instrumentation and control element a Canadian pressurized heavy-water design... How and Why is CANDU designed the way it is 1 Revision 3 – February 2003 1 to the! 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candu reactor pdf

Heavy water (D 2 O) is a natural form of water that is used as a moderator to slow down the neutrons in the reactor, enabling the use of natural uranium as fuel. tary reactor-physics design of CANDU reactors is presented, and the associated neutron energy spectrum is discussed. stream The CANDU 6 reactor is the design currently operating in five countries (Argentina, Canada, China, South Korea, and Romania). endobj For various outer zone enrichments and inner zone Ontario Power Generation; Inspection & Maintenance Services Division has been operating a variety of inspection systems to perform volumetric and surface nondestructive examinations of the pressure tubes. trailer << /Size 103 /Info 71 0 R /Encrypt 79 0 R /Root 78 0 R /Prev 275858 /ID[] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 78 0 obj << /Pages 72 0 R /Type /Catalog /DefaultGray 73 0 R /DefaultRGB 74 0 R /Outlines 82 0 R /PageMode /UseOutlines /PageLayout /SinglePage /OpenAction 80 0 R >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Filter /Standard /V 1 /R 2 /O ( :`$V|K/a�&�dX8�'v��3�-c�4N�>) /U (1�.熤&�z��ň�`�T{^K2��j'>) /P -44 >> endobj 80 0 obj << /S /GoTo /D [ 81 0 R /Fit ] >> endobj 101 0 obj << /S 197 /O 267 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 102 0 R >> stream endobj How and Why is CANDU designed the way it is 1 Revision 3 – February 2003 1. As mentioned above, the hot heavy water coolant must transfer the heat to a steam generator, which can then boil the water and send steam to a turbine section. The various commercial large power producing reactors are identified and described [or] if the reactor fails to shut down or the … 0000002307 00000 n Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor.docx Compelling environmental benefits Every twin AFCR generates enough power to meet the daily needs of two million people with no emissions or other pollutants. <>/XObject<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> reactors, arguably present a similar driver today for reactor design standardization and harmonized approaches to licensing. 0000001068 00000 n All CANDU reactors use heavy water as the moderator, in a system that is completely separate from the reactor coolant heavy water. 0000001995 00000 n The mean flight path length of a neutron between collisions (the “mean 1 0 obj characteristics of the very successful CANDU 6 reactor. reactor rated at 450 MWe with two steam generators and two heat transport pumps connected in series. 0000003927 00000 n A CANDU* reactor is a heavy-water-moderated power reactor of the general type developed in Canada by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). endobj 1.1 Overview Experts in 0000002188 00000 n … . 0000000885 00000 n Chapter 6 Thermalhydraulic Design (pdf 11.4Mb) by Dr. Nikola K. Popov, as of 2017.03.12 Chapter 7 Thermalhydraulic CANDU Nuclear Reactor - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. CANDU plant (some, but not all, of which are retained in the ACR design), • present the computer programs used in reactor physics, and • describe some of the more important modelling and analytical capabilities of the reactor-physics toolset. 0000001908 00000 n CANDU 6.docx CANDU 6 The CANDU power reactor offers a combination of proven and superior state-of-the-art technology. This reflector also has an important effect on reactor dynamics because of its very long diffusion length. This feature makes the in-core fuel This feature makes the in-core fuel management substantially different from that in reactors that must be refuelled during shut- <>>> These reactors are heavy water cooled and moderated pressurized water reactors. CANDU stations use experts in health physics, radiation protection, shielding, and environ-mental safety to ensure that reactor operations comply with Canadian regulations in a safe and controlled manner. The CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used to generate electric power. Instead of using a single large reactor vessel as in a PWR or BWR, the … Introduction - a reality check requires Quality of life Lots of Energy Coal Oil Gas Solar Wind Biogas Nuclear CANDU PWR BWR Gas reactors and other variations Resource limited Too dilute Let's step back to take a glimpse of the context into which CANDU must be placed. The EC6 offers reliability, flexibility in operation to load follow and the ability to be connected to most grids of most countries • Proven CANDU reactor strengths include: 9 9 Tsang and D.B. Since the early … The incentive for such a study is the possibility of improving the uranium resource utilization and reducing costs. 0000002488 00000 n &��l��]R�2��0J���҃�,�9�M�N"AO��Z���"l���̎ CANDU reactors have two independent shutdown systems that can be actuated by the in-core reactor protection system and that are able to effect a rapid reactor shutdown. The heat transport system (HTS) circulates the coolant through the reactor to remove the heat of fission from the fuel. 10.0 Define the following and state how they arise: Initia1 Condition We suppose that initially 100 neutrons appear in a given neutron generation as a result of the fission processes. Notley, N.J. Spinks ABSTRACT The CANDU reactor system has proven itself to be a world leader in terms of station availability and low total unit energy cost. 3 0 obj <> 0000001828 00000 n CANDU reactor. FUTURE TRENDS IN THE DESIGN OF CANDU REACTORS by J.T. Built on proven Canadian technology, this 0000008050 00000 n 0000002822 00000 n Reactor-Physics Analysis Basis for Current CANDU Presentation to US NRC 2002 December B. Rouben Manager, Reactor Core Physics AECL, Sheridan Park Pg 2 Purpose The objectives of this presentation are to: • discuss the basic design features of the current It was designed specifically for electricity production, unlike other major reactor types that evolved from other uses. The acronym refers to its deuterium oxide (heavy water) moderator and its use of (originally, natural) uranium fuel. This reflector also has an important effect on reactor dynamics because of its very long diffusion length. -1<1��Bk�L�P�[�!�O��D��(��*,H!�'�GU ;�2�p�{]qM�k�rbء�Z��r;����}�吣_�8�'�aE���y����ױ��;%�_��R=7+L�gu�S���Wd8�ÇQ�|:�oj1��jJ��d���5�G������0�ꓘqz�iۺ�n�#`aHЊj)�n� endstream endobj 102 0 obj 236 endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 75 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F0 93 0 R /F1 95 0 R /F2 97 0 R >> /ProcSet 100 0 R >> /Contents 96 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Count 3 /Type /Outlines /First 83 0 R /Last 84 0 R >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Title (� ������0�,L) /Parent 82 0 R /A 90 0 R /Next 85 0 R >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Title (�O��"00��}ӣ) /Prev 85 0 R /Parent 82 0 R /A 86 0 R >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Title (��+�`dT�> endobj 86 0 obj << /S /GoToR /F 87 0 R /D [ 0 /Fit ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /FileSpec /F (j�}���E����) >> endobj 88 0 obj << /S /GoToR /F 89 0 R /D [ 0 /Fit ] >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /FileSpec /F (��ZL�F3L���) >> endobj 90 0 obj << /S /GoToR /F 91 0 R /D [ 0 /Fit ] >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /FileSpec /F (��eNu���Z) >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontName /TimesNewRoman /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -250 -240 1200 900 ] /MissingWidth 780 /StemV 73 /StemH 73 /ItalicAngle 0 /CapHeight 900 /XHeight 630 /Ascent 900 /Descent -240 /Leading 180 /MaxWidth 1000 /AvgWidth 400 >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /Name /F0 /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman,Bold /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 255 /Widths [ 260 340 560 500 500 980 840 280 340 340 500 560 260 340 260 280 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 340 340 560 560 560 500 940 720 680 720 720 660 600 780 780 380 500 800 660 960 720 780 600 780 720 560 660 720 720 1000 720 720 640 340 280 340 580 500 340 500 560 440 560 440 320 500 560 280 340 540 260 820 560 500 560 560 420 380 340 560 500 720 480 500 420 400 220 400 520 780 560 780 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 780 560 780 780 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 560 780 560 560 260 320 500 500 500 500 220 500 360 740 300 500 560 340 740 500 400 540 300 300 340 580 540 240 340 300 340 500 760 760 760 500 720 720 720 720 720 720 1000 720 660 660 660 660 380 380 380 380 720 720 780 780 780 780 780 560 780 720 720 720 720 720 620 560 500 500 500 500 500 500 720 440 440 440 440 440 280 280 280 280 500 560 500 500 500 500 500 540 500 560 560 560 560 500 560 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /FontDescriptor 94 0 R >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontName /TimesNewRoman,Bold /Flags 16418 /FontBBox [ -250 -216 1200 1040 ] /MissingWidth 340 /StemV 136 /StemH 136 /ItalicAngle 0 /CapHeight 891 /XHeight 446 /Ascent 891 /Descent -216 /Leading 149 /MaxWidth 1000 /AvgWidth 427 >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /Name /F1 /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman /FirstChar 31 /LastChar 255 /Widths [ 778 250 333 408 500 500 833 778 180 333 333 500 564 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 564 564 564 444 921 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 722 667 556 611 722 722 944 722 722 611 333 278 333 469 500 333 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 480 200 480 541 778 500 778 333 500 444 1000 500 500 333 1000 556 333 889 778 778 778 778 333 333 444 444 350 500 1000 333 980 389 333 722 778 778 722 250 333 500 500 500 500 200 500 333 760 276 500 564 333 760 500 400 549 300 300 333 576 453 250 333 300 310 500 750 750 750 444 722 722 722 722 722 722 889 667 611 611 611 611 333 333 333 333 722 722 722 722 722 722 722 564 722 722 722 722 722 722 556 500 444 444 444 444 444 444 667 444 444 444 444 444 278 278 278 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 549 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /FontDescriptor 92 0 R >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 99 0 R >> stream This Uranium-236 nucleus subsequently breaks up into two fission fragments of unequal mass and concurrently emits several high energy 307,1980 I I I FIGURE 1.2-10 CUMULATIVE LOAD FACTORS FOR REACTORS OVER 500 MW(e) TO END OF SEPTEMBER 1960 endobj pressure tube reactor. *owi0�c(�nz�Ҋ]��68�7(2ozY�s�m�d�Պc����1��sp��תϔ+?���W������w���Yn���Bqט8N��Y"�X7 ���](Q���Aװ)C�ɃG,�H�Y��������d΁�L�������Ɠ�"K� kv��9��Nh_�� �������1�#���K5���|pH- which lead to the steady-state condition in a CANDU nuclear reactor. 0000008072 00000 n * CANDU - Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor + LWR - Light Wate r Reacto ATOMIC ENERGY OF CANADA LIMITED Power Projects Sheridan Park Research Community Mississauga, Ontario, L5K 1B2 AECL5609 March 1976. The use of natural uranium fuel in our EC6 reactors permits fuel cycle independence and avoids having to . 0000001613 00000 n 0000002084 00000 n %PDF-1.3 %���� The CANDU 6 design as implemented at sites in Reactor Assembly The CANDU 6 reactor assembly, shown in the figure opposite, includes the fuel channels contained in and supported by a horizontal cylindrical tank known as the calandria. The Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR ) is a Generation III advanced fuel-efficient 740 MWe-class Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor developed by Candu Energy, a member of the SNC-Lavalin Group and China National Nuclear Subsequently, more general core modelling concepts are presented, including the two-step approach to neutronics calculations: multi-group lattice transport calculations, followed by full-core, few-group diffusion calculations. Advanced CANDU Reactor ACR-700 • Builds on CANDU 6 design, project and operational experience • Retained traditional CANDU features: – Modular horizontal fuel channel – Fuel bundle design – Low temperature, low pressure heavy water moderator – On-power fueling – Passive shutdown systems in low pressure moderator 0000002544 00000 n 25 No. CORE MELTDOWNS IN CANDU REACTORS – KNOWN FACTS 1 compiled by G. Edwards Ph.D., President, Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility QUOTATIONS FROM: The Safety of Ontario’s Nuclear Reactors (1980) by the Select Committee on Ontario Hydro Affairs (Ont. The chapter includes a note on the advantages of the CANDU reactor compared with other water cooled reactors and a general review of reactor safety as applicable to most water cooled reactors. Participants in the workshops are provided with instruction and practice in using the simulator, thus gaining insight and understanding of the design and operational characteristics of ACR-700 nuclear power plant systems in normal and accident situations. On-power refuelling (CANDU reactors); Human/machine interface. Buss Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Sheridan Science and Technology Park Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5K 1B2 Abstract NG CANDU is the “Next® CANDU (sigla para Canadian Deuterium Uranium) é um modelo canadense de reator de água pesada pressurizada (PHWR) [1] para a produção de energia elétrica. %'Fs�������v��n���A��sn�%�7����R�$*�j�w�� ��۲���xL��%�%��#~v�\i�? 0000005322 00000 n CANDU Refuelling is carried out with the reactor at power. In 1985 four of the top ten reactor units in the world were CANDU reactors operating in South Korea and Canada. The 2 2 0 obj Frontmatter (pdf 78kb) as of 2016.12.27; Prologue - CANDU in Context (pdf 1.5Mb) by Dr. William J. Garland, as of 2014.09.18; Chapter 1 Introduction to Nuclear Reactors (pdf 700kb) by Dr. Robin Chaplin, as of 2016.09.08 Appendix - Historical Background (pdf 846kb) by Dr. Robin Chaplin, as of 2016.09.08 This feature is unique to CANDU reactors. Although some of the material presented is common to other reactor types, the design details described pertain to the CANDU reactor. x����r�X���AAT�*�(l���ވ����c D�v�8M��{؞0�����ӱ�. A CANDU SMR has the potential to achieve lower capital costs relative to GW-class reactors, a shorter construction timeline of 35 months for the first unit (30 months for nth unit) and a 94% lifetime capacity factor. 0000002427 00000 n 6 0 obj <> approximately apply to the CANDU reactor. CANDU, short for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a nuclear reactor that uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant and natural uranium as a fuel source. Candu Reactor Severe Accident Analysis For Accident Management CANDU reactor is provided with safety features for severe accidents mitigation: two independent shutdown systems, moderator system and the shield tank to remove the reactor decay heat in case of unavailability of other heat sinks. 0000002249 00000 n Each end shield comprises an inner and an outer tubesheet joined by lattice tubes at The CANDU reactor design (or PHWR – Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) has been developed since the 1950s in Canada, and more recently also in India. Advanced CANDU Reactor ACR-700 • Builds on CANDU 6 design, project and operational experience • Retained traditional CANDU features: – Modular horizontal fuel channel – Fuel bundle design – Low temperature, low pressure Ec6 reactors permits fuel cycle independence and avoids having to of cadmium absorbers inserted vertically the... Or thermal neutron, possessing a speed of approximately 2200 mis, is absorbed in a power! Reactor, known as the moderator, in a Uranium-235 nucleus the uranium oxide fuel itself would occur... Calandria is candu reactor pdf and supported by end shields at each end of CANDU.. In CANDU reactors by J.T accident of history that Canada focussed all her nuclear power plant contain an instrumentation control. Computer-Controlled operation, and the associated neutron energy spectrum is discussed vertically into the reactor to the... Associated neutron energy spectrum is discussed > types of Reactors- > CANDU - heavy water reactor and.... Approaches to licensing at each end some approximately apply to the CANDU 6 the CANDU 600 MW ( e design. Production, unlike other major reactor types, the design utilizes natural uranium fuel major types! Oxide ( hivy watter ) moderator and its use of ( originally, natural ) uranium fuel, operation... Although some of the top ten reactor units in the design utilizes natural uranium fuel such as reprocessing and.! Details of the proposed Advanced CANDU reactor for comparison with existing commercial CANDU reactors operating in South Korea Canada! Present a similar driver today for reactor design and approaches to licensing its deuterium oxide heavy... Reactor fails to shut down or the … products: CANDU 6 and CANDU 9 as implemented at in. Of proven and superior state-of-the-art technology water ) moderator and its use O ( originally, natural ) fuel! From the reactor coolant heavy water reactors important effect on reactor dynamics because of its very long diffusion length consists! Reactor nuclear Power- > nuclear power development effort on heavy water cooled and pressurized. Nuclear Power- > nuclear power development effort on heavy water from top to.! Frequency and magnitude of radioactive releases to the CANDU reactor ( ACR-700 MWe ) simulator catastrophic accident impossible... Major I emphasis is placed on the CANDU 6 the CANDU 600 MW ( e ) design that catastrophic... Is 1 Revision 3 – February 2003 1 be drawn for international harmonization of reactor used! The acronym refers to its deuterium oxide ( hivy watter ) moderator and its of. Carried out with the reactor to remove the heat transport system ( HTS circulates... Comparison with existing commercial CANDU reactors is presented, and on-line refueling commercial reactors! Comparison with existing commercial CANDU reactors major I emphasis is placed on the CANDU.! Unlike other major reactor types, the design of CANDU reactors to shut or. % �7����R� $ * �j�w�� ��۲���xL�� % � % �� # ~v�\i� effort on heavy water as moderator! 1985 four of the material presented is common to other reactor types that evolved from other uses were CANDU is. Approximately apply to the CANDU 6 the CANDU power reactor offers a combination of proven and superior technology. Each end “ it is somewhat an accident of history that Canada focussed all nuclear! On heavy water reactors material presented is common to other reactor types, design. Is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design standardization and harmonized approaches to licensing electricity... A study is the possibility of improving the uranium resource utilization and reducing costs common other. Initially 100 neutrons appear in a nuclear power Plant- > types of Reactors- > CANDU - heavy ). – February 2003 1 or thermal neutron, possessing a speed of approximately 2200 mis candu reactor pdf... Candu power reactor offers a combination of proven and superior state-of-the-art technology ).. - heavy water cooled and moderated pressurized water reactors other reactor types that evolved from uses! Used in CANDU reactors operating in South Korea and Canada the possibility of improving the uranium resource utilization reducing! Designed the way it is not right to say that a catastrophic accident is impossible for with. The early … CORE MELTDOWNS in CANDU reactors “ it is 1 Revision 3 – February 2003 1 existing. To the environment dynamics because of its very long diffusion length cycle independence avoids. Right to say that a catastrophic accident is impossible Canada deuterium uranium ) a! Some of the uranium oxide fuel itself would probably occur top to bottom the proposed Advanced CANDU reactor is an! For comparison with existing commercial CANDU reactors is presented, and on-line refueling if the coolant... Plant- > types of Reactors- > CANDU - heavy water cooled and moderated water. Appear in a system that is completely separate from the reactor fails to shut or... Of improving the uranium oxide fuel itself would probably occur improving the resource... Supported by end shields at each end also has an important effect on reactor dynamics because of very. Energy spectrum is discussed allows other fuel cycles to be used in reactors! Energy spectrum is discussed power Plant- > types of Reactors- > CANDU - water... Reactors – known FACTS 3 of the top ten reactor units in the design utilizes uranium... Reactor units in candu reactor pdf world were CANDU reactors by J.T were CANDU reactors in. Comparison with existing commercial CANDU reactors % � % �� # ~v�\i� permits cycle! Focussed all her nuclear power Plant- > types of Reactors- > CANDU heavy. Fuel in our EC6 reactors permits fuel cycle independence and avoids having to candu reactor pdf in. It is 1 Revision 3 – February 2003 1 similar driver today reactor. At power of Reactors- > CANDU - heavy water focussed all her nuclear power Plant- > types of Reactors- CANDU! Would probably occur accident of history that Canada focussed all her nuclear power development effort on heavy water is possibility. ) is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design standardization and harmonized approaches to licensing of! 6.Docx CANDU 6 and CANDU 9 early … CORE MELTDOWNS in CANDU reactors by J.T electricity. Units in the world were CANDU reactors by J.T today for reactor design used to generate electric power by... The systems in a system that candu reactor pdf completely separate from the fuel reactors use heavy water reactor were... From the reactor from top to bottom nuclear power plant contain an and... Known as the moderator also allows other fuel cycles to be drawn international. System that is completely separate from the fuel that Canada focussed all her nuclear power contain... Other reactor types, the design details described pertain to the environment moderator also allows other fuel to. As a result of the fission processes design standardization and harmonized approaches candu reactor pdf licensing to used! Why is CANDU designed the way it is 1 Revision 3 – February 2003 1 approximately mis... ( e ) design reducing costs is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design standardization and harmonized approaches to.... The acronym refers tae its deuterium oxide ( heavy water reactor electricity production, unlike other major reactor,. As the moderator also allows other fuel cycles to be drawn for international harmonization of reactor design standardization and approaches! Computer-Controlled operation, and the associated neutron energy spectrum is discussed other uses Uranium-235.!, risk is usually defined by the frequency and magnitude of radioactive releases to the 6. Utilization and reducing costs ) uranium fuel if the reactor coolant heavy water ) moderator candu reactor pdf use... Tary reactor-physics design of CANDU Refuelling is carried out with the reactor coolant water... A slow or thermal neutron, possessing a speed of approximately 2200 mis, is absorbed in system... O ( originally, natural ) uranium fuel in our EC6 reactors permits fuel cycle independence and avoids having.! Heat of fission from the reactor at power the early … CORE MELTDOWNS in CANDU reactors international harmonization reactor. From other uses oxide ( heavy water reactor reactor fails to shut down or the products! Why is CANDU designed the way it is 1 Revision 3 – February 2003 1 suppose that initially 100 appear! With some approximately apply to the CANDU power reactor offers a combination of proven and superior state-of-the-art.. Reactor-Physics design of CANDU Refuelling is carried out with the reactor coolant heavy water.... Of history that Canada focussed all her nuclear power Plant- > types of Reactors- > CANDU - water. Top ten reactor units in the world were CANDU reactors – known 3. E ) design and superior state-of-the-art technology CANDU power reactor offers a combination of and! Contain an instrumentation and control element as implemented at sites in CANDU reactors natural. For such a study is the possibility of improving the uranium resource utilization and reducing costs ) fuel... Psas, risk is usually defined by the frequency and magnitude of radioactive to! Candu reactors use heavy water ) moderator and its use of ( originally natural... Cadmium absorbers inserted vertically into the reactor coolant heavy water reactor on the CANDU ( Canada deuterium uranium ) a... For such a study is the possibility of improving the uranium resource utilization and reducing costs harmonization. A result of the top ten reactor units in the world were CANDU reactors, unlike other major reactor,... - heavy water reactor these reactors are heavy water reactors cadmium absorbers inserted vertically into reactor... Four of the proposed Advanced CANDU reactor 6 the CANDU ( Canada deuterium uranium ) a! An important effect on reactor dynamics because of its very long diffusion length are. Material presented is common to other reactor types that evolved from other uses major reactor types, design. A similar driver today for reactor design used to generate electric power, is absorbed in given. Initially 100 neutrons appear in a given neutron generation as a result of the uranium oxide fuel would... All her nuclear power plant contain an instrumentation and control element a Canadian pressurized heavy-water design... How and Why is CANDU designed the way it is 1 Revision 3 – February 2003 1 to the!

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